'; ?> geneimprint : Hot off the Press http://www.geneimprint.com/site/hot-off-the-press Daily listing of the most recent articles in epigenetics and imprinting, collected from the PubMed database. en-us Mon, 28 Jul 2014 02:51:34 PDT Mon, 28 Jul 2014 02:51:34 PDT jirtle@radonc.duke.edu james001@jirtle.com Applied choline-omics: lessons from human metabolic studies for the integration of genomics research into nutrition practice. West AA, Caudill MA
J Acad Nutr Diet (Aug 2014)

Nutritional genomics, defined as the study of reciprocal interactions among nutrients, metabolic intermediates, and the genome, along with other closely related nutritional -omic fields (eg, epigenomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics) have become vital areas of nutrition study and knowledge. Utilizing results from human metabolic research on the essential nutrient choline, this article illustrates how nutrigenetic, nutrigenomic, and inter-related -omic research has provided new insights into choline metabolism and its effect on physiologic processes. Findings from highlighted choline research are also discussed in the context of translation to clinical and public health nutrition applications. Overall, this article underscores the utility of -omic research methods in elucidating nutrient metabolism as well as the potential for nutritional -omic concepts and discoveries to be broadly applied in nutritional practice.]]>
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Two deletions overlapping a distant FOXF1 enhancer unravel the role of lncRNA LINC01081 in etiology of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins. Szafranski P, Dharmadhikari AV, Wambach JA, Towe CT, White FV, Grady RM, Eghtesady P, Cole FS, Deutsch G, Sen P, Stankiewicz P
Am J Med Genet A (Aug 2014)

Position effects due to disruption of distant cis-regulatory regions have been reported for over 40 human gene loci; however, the underlying mechanisms of long-range gene regulation remain largely unknown. We report on two patients with alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) caused by overlapping genomic deletions that included a distant FOXF1 transcriptional enhancer mapping 0.3 Mb upstream to FOXF1 on 16q24.1. In one patient with atypical late-onset ACDMPV, a ∼1.5 Mb deletion removed the proximal 43% of this enhancer, leaving the lung-specific long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) gene LINC01081 intact. In the second patient with severe neonatal-onset ACDMPV, an overlapping ∼194 kb deletion disrupted LINC01081. Both deletions arose de novo on maternal copy of the chromosome 16, supporting the notion that FOXF1 is paternally imprinted in the human lungs. RNAi-mediated knock-down of LINC01081 in normal fetal lung fibroblasts showed that this lncRNA positively regulates FOXF1 transcript level, further indicating that decrease in LINC01081 expression can contribute to development of ACDMPV. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.]]>
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
The evolution of genomic imprinting: costs, benefits and long-term consequences. Holman L, Kokko H
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc (Aug 2014)

Genomic imprinting refers to a pattern of gene expression in which a specific parent's allele is either under-expressed or completely silenced. Imprinting is an evolutionary conundrum because it appears to incur the costs of diploidy (e.g. presenting a larger target than haploidy to mutations) while foregoing its benefits (protection from harmful recessive mutations). Here, we critically evaluate previously proposed evolutionary benefits of imprinting and suggest some additional ones. We discuss whether each benefit is capable of explaining both the origin and maintenance of imprinting, and examine how the different benefits interact. We then outline the many costs of imprinting. Simple models show that circulating deleterious recessives can prevent the initial spread of imprinting, even if imprinting would be evolutionarily stable if it could persist long enough to purge these. We also show that imprinting can raise or lower the mutation load, depending on the selective regime and the degree of dominance. We finish by discussing the population-level consequences of imprinting, which can be both positive and negative. Imprinting offers many insights into evolutionary conflict, the interaction between individual- and population-level fitness effects, and the 'gene's-eye view' of evolution.]]>
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Genetic variants within the second intron of the KCNQ1 gene affect CTCF binding and confer a risk of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome upon maternal transmission. Demars J, Shmela ME, Khan AW, Lee KS, Azzi S, Dehais P, Netchine I, Rossignol S, Le Bouc Y, El-Osta A, Gicquel C
J Med Genet (Aug 2014)

Disruption of 11p15 imprinting results in two fetal growth disorders with opposite phenotypes: the Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS; MIM 130650) and the Silver-Russell (SRS; MIM 180860) syndromes. DNA methylation defects account for 60% of BWS and SRS cases and, in most cases, occur without any identified mutation in a cis-acting regulatory sequence or a trans-acting factor.]]>
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Induces Long-Term Proinflammatory Cytokine Production and Foam Cell Formation via Epigenetic Reprogramming of Monocytes. Bekkering S, Quintin J, Joosten LA, van der Meer JW, Netea MG, Riksen NP
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol (Aug 2014)

Although the role of monocytes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is well established, the persistent vascular inflammation remains largely unexplained. Recently, our group reported that stimulation of monocytes with various microbial products can induce a long-lasting proinflammatory phenotype via epigenetic reprogramming, a process termed trained immunity. We now hypothesize that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) also induces a long-lasting proinflammatory phenotype in monocytes, which accelerates atherosclerosis by proinflammatory cytokine production and foam cell formation.]]>
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Mammalian viviparity: a complex niche in the evolution of genomic imprinting. Keverne EB
Heredity (Edinb) (Aug 2014)

Evolution of mammalian reproductive success has witnessed a strong dependence on maternal resources through placental in utero development. Genomic imprinting, which has an active role in mammalian viviparity, also reveals a biased role for matrilineal DNA in its regulation. The co-existence of three matrilineal generations as one (mother, foetus and post-meiotic oocytes) has provided a maternal niche for transgenerational co-adaptive selection pressures to operate. In utero foetal growth has required increased maternal feeding in advance of foetal energetic demands; the mammary glands are primed for milk production in advance of birth, while the maternal hypothalamus is hormonally primed by the foetal placenta for nest building and post-natal care. Such biological forward planning resulted from maternal-foetal co-adaptation facilitated by co-expression of the same imprinted allele in the developing hypothalamus and placenta. This co-expression is concurrent with the placenta interacting with the adult maternal hypothalamus thereby providing a transgenerational template on which selection pressures may operate ensuring optimal maternalism in this and the next generation. Invasive placentation has further required the maternal immune system to adapt and positively respond to the foetal allotype. Pivotal to these mammalian evolutionary developments, genomic imprinting emerged as a monoallelic gene dosage regulatory mechanism of tightly interconnected gene networks providing developmental genetic stability for in utero development.]]>
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Genomic imprinting and the units of adaptation. Gardner A
Heredity (Edinb) (Aug 2014)

Two guiding principles identify which biological entities are able to evolve adaptations. Williams' principle holds that, in order for an entity to evolve adaptations, there must be selection between such entities. Maynard Smith's principle holds that, in order for an entity to evolve adaptations, selection within such entities must be absent or negligible. However, although the kinship theory of genomic imprinting suggests that parent-of-origin-specific gene expression evolves as a consequence of natural selection acting between-rather than within-individuals, it evades adaptive interpretation at the individual level and is instead viewed as an outcome of an intragenomic conflict of interest between an individual's genes. Here, I formalize the idea that natural selection drives intragenomic conflicts of interest between genes originating from different parents. Specifically, I establish mathematical links between the dynamics of natural selection and the idea of the gene as an intentional, inclusive-fitness-maximizing agent, and I clarify the role that information about parent of origin plays in mediating conflicts of interest between genes residing in the same genome. These results highlight that the suppression of divisive information may be as important as the suppression of lower levels of selection in maintaining the integrity of units of adaptation.]]>
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Coadaptation and conflict, misconception and muddle, in the evolution of genomic imprinting. Haig D
Heredity (Edinb) (Aug 2014)

Common misconceptions of the 'parental conflict' theory of genomic imprinting are addressed. Contrary to widespread belief, the theory defines conditions for cooperation as well as conflict in mother-offspring relations. Moreover, conflict between genes of maternal and paternal origin is not the same as conflict between mothers and fathers. In theory, imprinting can evolve either because genes of maternal and paternal origin have divergent interests or because offspring benefit from a phenotypic match, or mismatch, to one or other parent. The latter class of models usually require maintenance of polymorphism at imprinted loci for the maintenance of imprinted expression. The conflict hypothesis does not require maintenance of polymorphism and is therefore a more plausible explanation of evolutionarily conserved imprinting.]]>
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Post-natal imprinting: evidence from marsupials. Stringer JM, Pask AJ, Shaw G, Renfree MB
Heredity (Edinb) (Aug 2014)

Genomic imprinting has been identified in therian (eutherian and marsupial) mammals but not in prototherian (monotreme) mammals. Imprinting has an important role in optimising pre-natal nutrition and growth, and most imprinted genes are expressed and imprinted in the placenta and developing fetus. In marsupials, however, the placental attachment is short-lived, and most growth and development occurs post-natally, supported by a changing milk composition tailor-made for each stage of development. Therefore there is a much greater demand on marsupial females during post-natal lactation than during pre-natal placentation, so there may be greater selection for genomic imprinting in the mammary gland than in the short-lived placenta. Recent studies in the tammar wallaby confirm the presence of genomic imprinting in nutrient-regulatory genes in the adult mammary gland. This suggests that imprinting may influence infant post-natal growth via the mammary gland as it does pre-natally via the placenta. Similarly, an increasing number of imprinted genes have been implicated in regulating feeding and nurturing behaviour in both the adult and the developing neonate/offspring in mice. Together these studies provide evidence that genomic imprinting is critical for regulating growth and subsequently the survival of offspring not only pre-natally but also post-natally.]]>
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Non-conflict theories for the evolution of genomic imprinting. Spencer HG, Clark AG
Heredity (Edinb) (Aug 2014)

Theories focused on kinship and the genetic conflict it induces are widely considered to be the primary explanations for the evolution of genomic imprinting. However, there have appeared many competing ideas that do not involve kinship/conflict. These ideas are often overlooked because kinship/conflict is entrenched in the literature, especially outside evolutionary biology. Here we provide a critical overview of these non-conflict theories, providing an accessible perspective into this literature. We suggest that some of these alternative hypotheses may, in fact, provide tenable explanations of the evolution of imprinting for at least some loci.]]>
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Using next-generation RNA sequencing to identify imprinted genes. Wang X, Clark AG
Heredity (Edinb) (Aug 2014)

Genomic imprinting is manifested as differential allelic expression (DAE) depending on the parent-of-origin. The most direct way to identify imprinted genes is to directly score the DAE in a context where one can identify which parent transmitted each allele. Because many genes display DAE, simply scoring DAE in an individual is not sufficient to identify imprinted genes. In this paper, we outline many technical aspects of a scheme for identification of imprinted genes that makes use of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from tissues isolated from F1 offspring derived from the pair of reciprocal crosses. Ideally, the parental lines are from two inbred strains that are not closely related to each other. Aspects of tissue purity, RNA extraction, library preparation and bioinformatic inference of imprinting are all covered. These methods have already been applied in a number of organisms, and one of the most striking results is the evolutionary fluidity with which novel imprinted genes are gained and lost within genomes. The general methodology is also applicable to a wide range of other biological problems that require quantification of allele-specific expression using RNA-seq, such as cis-regulation of gene expression, X chromosome inactivation and random monoallelic expression.]]>
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Gene interactions in the evolution of genomic imprinting. Wolf JB, Brandvain Y
Heredity (Edinb) (Aug 2014)

Numerous evolutionary theories have been developed to explain the epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting. Here, we explore a subset of theories wherein non-additive genetic interactions can favour imprinting. In the simplest genic interaction-the case of underdominance-imprinting can be favoured to hide effectively low-fitness heterozygous genotypes; however, as there is no asymmetry between maternally and paternally inherited alleles in this model, other means of enforcing monoallelic expression may be more plausible evolutionary outcomes than genomic imprinting. By contrast, more successful interaction models of imprinting rely on an asymmetry between the maternally and paternally inherited alleles at a locus that favours the silencing of one allele as a means of coordinating the expression of high-fitness allelic combinations. For example, with interactions between autosomal loci, imprinting functionally preserves high-fitness genotypes that were favoured by selection in the previous generation. In this scenario, once a focal locus becomes imprinted, selection at interacting loci favours a matching imprint. Uniparental transmission generates similar asymmetries for sex chromosomes and cytoplasmic factors interacting with autosomal loci, with selection favouring the expression of either maternal or paternally derived autosomal alleles depending on the pattern of transmission of the uniparentally inherited factor. In a final class of models, asymmetries arise when genes expressed in offspring interact with genes expressed in one of its parents. Under such a scenario, a locus evolves to have imprinted expression in offspring to coordinate the interaction with its parent's genome. We illustrate these models and explore key links and differences using a unified framework.]]>
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Genomic imprinting: theories and data. Spencer HG, Wolf JB
Heredity (Edinb) (Aug 2014)

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Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
The evolution of genomic imprinting: theories, predictions and empirical tests. Patten MM, Ross L, Curley JP, Queller DC, Bonduriansky R, Wolf JB
Heredity (Edinb) (Aug 2014)

The epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting has motivated the development of numerous theories for its evolutionary origins and genomic distribution. In this review, we examine the three theories that have best withstood theoretical and empirical scrutiny. These are: Haig and colleagues' kinship theory; Day and Bonduriansky's sexual antagonism theory; and Wolf and Hager's maternal-offspring coadaptation theory. These theories have fundamentally different perspectives on the adaptive significance of imprinting. The kinship theory views imprinting as a mechanism to change gene dosage, with imprinting evolving because of the differential effect that gene dosage has on the fitness of matrilineal and patrilineal relatives. The sexual antagonism and maternal-offspring coadaptation theories view genomic imprinting as a mechanism to modify the resemblance of an individual to its two parents, with imprinting evolving to increase the probability of expressing the fitter of the two alleles at a locus. In an effort to stimulate further empirical work on the topic, we carefully detail the logic and assumptions of all three theories, clarify the specific predictions of each and suggest tests to discriminate between these alternative theories for why particular genes are imprinted.]]>
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
The specification of imprints in mammals. Hanna CW, Kelsey G
Heredity (Edinb) (Aug 2014)

At the heart of genomic imprinting in mammals are imprinting control regions (ICRs), which are the discrete genetic elements that confer imprinted monoallelic expression to several genes in imprinted gene clusters. A characteristic of the known ICRs is that they acquire different epigenetic states, exemplified by differences in DNA methylation, in the sperm and egg, and these imprint marks remain on the sperm- and oocyte-derived alleles into the next generation as a lifelong memory of parental origin. Although there has been much focus on gametic marking of ICRs as the point of imprint specification, recent mechanistic studies and genome-wide DNA methylation profiling do not support the existence of a specific imprinting machinery in germ cells. Rather, ICRs are part of more widespread methylation events that occur during gametogenesis. Instead, a decisive component in the specification of imprints is the choice of which sites of gamete-derived methylation to maintain in the zygote and preimplantation embryo at a time when much of the remainder of the genome is being demethylated. Among the factors involved in this selection, the zinc-finger protein Zfp57 can be regarded as an imprint-specific, sequence-specific DNA binding factor responsible for maintaining methylation at most ICRs. The recent insights into the balance of gametic and zygotic contributions to imprint specification should help understand mechanistic opportunities and constraints on the evolution of imprinting in mammals.]]>
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Imprinted gene expression in hybrids: perturbed mechanisms and evolutionary implications. Wolf JB, Oakey RJ, Feil R
Heredity (Edinb) (Aug 2014)

Diverse mechanisms contribute to the evolution of reproductive barriers, a process that is critical in speciation. Amongst these are alterations in gene products and in gene dosage that affect development and reproductive success in hybrid offspring. Because of its strict parent-of-origin dependence, genomic imprinting is thought to contribute to the aberrant phenotypes observed in interspecies hybrids in mammals and flowering plants, when the abnormalities depend on the directionality of the cross. In different groups of mammals, hybrid incompatibility has indeed been linked to loss of imprinting. Aberrant expression levels have been reported as well, including imprinted genes involved in development and growth. Recent studies in humans emphasize that genetic diversity within a species can readily perturb imprinted gene expression and phenotype as well. Despite novel insights into the underlying mechanisms, the full extent of imprinted gene perturbation still remains to be determined in the different hybrid systems. Here we review imprinted gene expression in intra- and interspecies hybrids and examine the evolutionary scenarios under which imprinting could contribute to hybrid incompatibilities. We discuss effects on development and reproduction and possible evolutionary implications.]]>
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
The ways of action of long non-coding RNAs in cytoplasm and nucleus. Zhang K, Shi ZM, Chang YN, Hu ZM, Qi HX, Hong W
Gene (Aug 2014)

Over the past fifteen years, small regulatory RNAs, such as siRNA and miRNA, have been extensively investigated and the underlying molecular mechanisms have been well documented, suggesting that ncRNAs play a major function in many cellular processes. An expanding body of evidence reveals that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), once described as dark matter, are involved in diverse cellular progresses, including regulation of gene expression, dosage compensation, genomic imprinting, nuclear organization and nuclear-cytoplasm trafficking via a number of complex mechanisms. The emerging links between lncRNAs and diseases as well as their tissue-specific expression patterns also indicate that lncRNAs comprise a core transcriptional regulatory circuitry. The function of lncRNAs is based on their sequence and structure; and they can combine with DNA, RNA, and proteins both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. However, detailed insights into their biological and mechanistic functions are only beginning to emerge. In this review, we will mainly talk about diverse ways of action of lncRNAs in different sub-cellular locations and provide clues for following studies.]]>
Tue, 08 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Etiologies underlying sex differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Schaafsma SM, Pfaff DW
Front Neuroendocrinol (Aug 2014)

The male predominance of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is one of the best-known, and at the same time, one of the least understood characteristics of these disorders. In this paper we review genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and environmental mechanisms underlying this male preponderance. Sex-specific effects of Y-linked genes (including SRY expression leading to testicular development), balanced and skewed X-inactivation, genes that escape X-inactivation, parent-of-origin allelic imprinting, and the hypothetical heterochromatin sink are reviewed. These mechanisms likely contribute to etiology, instead of being simply causative to ASD. Environments, both internal and external, also play important roles in ASD's etiology. Early exposure to androgenic hormones and early maternal immune activation comprise environmental factors affecting sex-specific susceptibility to ASD. The gene-environment interactions underlying ASD, suggested here, implicate early prenatal stress as being especially detrimental to boys with a vulnerable genotype.]]>
Mon, 07 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Allelic expression analysis in the brain suggests a role for heterogeneous insults affecting epigenetic processes in autism spectrum disorders. Ben-David E, Shohat S, Shifman S
Hum Mol Genet (Aug 2014)

Monoallelic expression, including genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and random monoallelic expression of autosomal genes are epigenetic phenomena. Genes that are expressed in a monoallelic way may be more vulnerable to genetic or epigenetic mutations. Thus, comprehensive exploration of monoallelic expression in human brains may shed light on complex brain disorders. Autism-related disorders are known to be associated with imprinted genes on chromosome 15. However, it is not clear whether other imprinted regions or other types of monoallelic expression are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we performed a genome-wide survey of allele expression imbalance (AEI) in the human brain using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in 18 individuals with ASD and 15 controls. Individuals with ASD had the most extreme number of monoallelic expressed SNPs in both the autosomes and the X chromosome. In two cases that were studied in detail, the monoallelic expression was confined to specific brain region or cell type. Using these data, we were also able to define the allelic expression status of known imprinted genes in the human brain and to identify abnormal imprinting in an individual with ASD. Lastly, we developed an analysis of individual-level expression, focusing on the difference of each individual from the mean. We found that individuals with ASD had more genes that were up- or down-regulated in an individual-specific manner. We also identified pathways perturbed in specific individuals. These results underline the heterogeneity in gene regulation in ASD, at the level of both allelic and total expression.]]>
Sat, 05 Jul 2014 00:00:00 PDT
Epigenetic determinants of ovarian clear cell carcinoma biology. Yamaguchi K, Huang Z, Matsumura N, Mandai M, Okamoto T, Baba T, Konishi I, Berchuck A, Murphy SK
Int J Cancer (Aug 2014)

Targeted approaches have revealed frequent epigenetic alterations in ovarian cancer, but the scope and relation of these changes to histologic subtype of disease is unclear. Genome-wide methylation and expression data for 14 clear cell carcinoma (CCC), 32 non-CCC and four corresponding normal cell lines were generated to determine how methylation profiles differ between cells of different histological derivations of ovarian cancer. Consensus clustering showed that CCC is epigenetically distinct. Inverse relationships between expression and methylation in CCC were identified, suggesting functional regulation by methylation, and included 22 hypomethylated (UM) genes and 276 hypermethylated (HM) genes. Categorical and pathway analyses indicated that the CCC-specific UM genes were involved in response to stress and many contain hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1-binding sites, while the CCC-specific HM genes included members of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) network and genes involved in tumor development. We independently validated the methylation status of 17 of these pathway-specific genes, and confirmed increased expression of HNF1 network genes and repression of ERalpha pathway genes in CCC cell lines and primary cancer tissues relative to non-CCC specimens. Treatment of three CCC cell lines with the demethylating agent Decitabine significantly induced expression for all five genes analyzed. Coordinate changes in pathway expression were confirmed using two primary ovarian cancer datasets (p < 0.0001 for both). Our results suggest that methylation regulates specific pathways and biological functions in CCC, with hypomethylation influencing the characteristic biology of the disease while hypermethylation contributes to the carcinogenic process.]]>
Mon, 19 May 2014 00:00:00 PDT